This session will take approximately 50 minutes to complete.
When lesson planning, it is important to consider how and where you will include assessment opportunities. As highlighted in session 1, your assessment needs to be driven by its purpose and you should be clear about what information you are trying to capture.
This session will focus on:
- How to plan for effective assessment
- Structuring questions to anticipate and identify misconceptions
Planning for effective assessment
“One way to ensure your assessment is effective is to plan for it to be a strong bridge between teaching and learning”(Wiliam, 2013)
Carefully planned opportunities for assessment support you to understand your pupils’ needs. This will consequently reduce the amount of time that you spend planning as you will have the information to hand as to where you need to take the learning next.
To demonstrate how you might plan for these assessment opportunities, three key points in a lesson have been selected.
- Assessing prior knowledge
Using assessment to check for prior knowledge and pre-existing misconceptions can mean that you are aware of the levels of understanding across the class before you begin; this may impact on what learning you deliver and how.
- Checking that pupils have met the lesson objective
Selecting a question or a task that allows you to assess whether pupils have met the learning objective will support you to assess the levels of understanding across the class and pinpoint any knowledge gaps.
- Checking for misconceptions and addressing them
Anticipating common misconceptions and monitoring pupils as they work can mean that you are able to assess quickly whether a misconception has occurred.
In the following videos, teachers have explained how they maximised some of these moments by carefully planning their assessment to help support their knowledge and understanding of pupils’ needs.
Select the video(s) that you feel are appropriate to your development. You can make notes in your notebook if you wish.
Assessment is an essential part of every lesson, it gives you information about your pupils’ levels of understanding and needs and helps you to know how to respond and where to take the learning next. When I first started teaching, I probably didn’t assess as regularly throughout the lesson as I would now. Assessment would mainly take the form of questioning followed by the reviewing of pupil work after the lesson. Now it is something that is a constant feature of my teaching, and I have discovered a range of natural places to pause during a lesson and plan some intentional assessment opportunities.
A key opportunity for assessment is the beginning of the lesson, and I often use this time to activate some prior learning from either the day before (as a recap) or a week or so ago (as more of a spaced/retrieval practice). Depending on how recently we learnt the topic, I often like to give a partially completed example which the pupils then complete, or a ‘find the error’ example where they find my mistake. I find these really help focus pupil thinking back to the topic knowledge and specifically the processes and steps that they need to implement in order to solve a problem. An example from literacy might be something like this (show starter)
|Correct Mr Sulivan’s grammar mistakes:
Walking through the viallage , sarah spotted some yellow ducklings on there own in the pond sarah new that they must only be days old and that mabye their mother had flown of to find some food for them
I often put in common misconceptions or mistakes pupils usually make. Spelling of the word ‘maybe’ as ‘mabye’, or missing a capital letter of proper nouns is really common.
Another opportunity to plan in some purposeful assessment is to consciously check for misconceptions forming in pupil knowledge. I have been teaching for over 10 years now, so I am more familiar with the types of misconceptions that can happen in each subject, but at the start of my career I found it really valuable to chat with experienced colleagues if I ever felt that I wasn’t sure what misconceptions could arise. I like to plan to check for potential misconceptions at two points of the lesson:
- As I am about to set pupils to their independent or guided task.
- And then again during the independent or guided task, I will move around the room and look for misconceptions to correct instantly. This may involve me stopping the whole class if I spot a misconception forming in several pupils’ work.
I don’t do this for every lesson, but where I know there is a good chance of a common misconception arising, I will give the class a question to answer which contains the misconception. It is only a quick check, but it helps me get a sense of whether the class is ready to try the independent work or which pupils would benefit from more support.
An example of this would be:
|Which sentence contains the correctly placed apostrophe?
A – The pupils’ in the class were ready to learn.
B – The pupils in the class were ready to learn.
C – The pupil’s in the class were ready to learn.
How do you know?
I find it helpful to anticipate potential misconception and be conscious and explicit about them when I teach.
Assessment is an essential part of every lesson and should be present throughout. Although, the form in which it takes place may vary depending on the stage of pupils’ learning and the tasks they are completing. Without assessment, lessons cannot address or meet pupils’ needs.
Assessing Prior Knowledge
In a series of lessons, we were looking at the issue of the development gap. The development gap is the difference in levels of development between the richest and poorest countries in the world. I wanted to plan in an opportunity to assess whether pupils could recall the strategies we had previously covered before progressing with new material.
In order to check pupils’ deeper understanding, I planned to ask them to recall one strategy and give an example of how this strategy is used. I knew that by asking them to explain how it is being used, I could uncover any misunderstandings they may have about the strategies they recalled.
I planned to check their understanding of this at the beginning of a lesson where the outcome was for pupils to evaluate the success of strategies used to reduce the development gap. I knew that they needed the prior knowledge of what different strategies could be used, before they could evaluate their success.
I planned to begin the lesson with a settling task which pupils had to complete as soon as they came into the lesson. This retrieval practice would give me an insight of how much foundational knowledge the pupils could recall from the previous lesson.
I planned to further assess this through question and answer, probing for further information from pupils to gain a deeper understanding of how these strategies help to close the development gap, why they might be used, and how successful they have been.
Checking for misconceptions
I planned to address any misconceptions prior to moving on to the next part of the lesson, which was an explanation of how to evaluate the strategies. Here I planned to show an example answer to demonstrate the structure of writing required to answer an ‘evaluate’ question. During this explanation, I planned to assess pupils’ learning through question and answer to ensure I gave them enough support before instructing them to complete the task.
During the task, I planned to assess their ability to evaluate the strategies using the correct writing structure through live marking. This is where the teacher moves around the class while the pupils are individually working to assess understanding while pupils are completing a task. I find this form of assessment highly impactful because misunderstandings can be addressed immediately through face to face feedback, meaning further explanation or challenge can be given to the pupils as they need it. When implementing live marking, I would always check pupils who have demonstrated a weaker understanding first to provide further support if necessary. Planning assessment throughout my lessons in this way has a positive impact on pupil learning as no time is lost through lack of understanding. Any lack of knowledge or understanding that does become apparent can be remedied immediately or planned into following lessons. Because of this, pupils make good progress.
Think back to a previous lesson you have taught and answer the following questions in your notepad.
What methods did you use to assess the following? Could you include any of the methods you have heard from fellow teachers into your practice?
- Assessing prior knowledge
- Checking that pupils have met the lesson objective
- Checking for misconceptions and addressing them
When planning for effective assessment, all teachers in the previous section mentioned questioning and the planning of questions to check for pupil understanding at points across the lesson.
Effective questioning was explored in detail in module 3. Below are some of the key features highlighted in that module that should be incorporated into your questioning.
- Avoid self-report questions; ask questions that directly assess pupil understanding of the material being taught
- Check whole class understanding
- Provide appropriate wait time after asking a question to allow pupils to generate a response
Structuring your questions to enable the identification of knowledge gaps and misconceptions is a good use of planning time. It will mean that you gather information at key points in the lesson that will help you decide what to do next.
A question type that can be a useful tool for identifying knowledge gaps and misconceptions is a hinge question. A hinge question can take the form of an individual question or multiple-choice question, and they are a check for understanding that allows you to gather assessment information from the whole class simultaneously. The reason they are called a hinge question is that they come at the ‘hinge-point’ of the lesson. This is a point where:
- you move from one key idea, task or learning point to another.
- understanding the content before the hinge is a prerequisite for the next part of the lesson.
The results of the hinge question will determine whether you move on to the next chunk of learning, or work to consolidate, practise or reteach the previous concept further. They are also very useful for helping you to determine whether a pupil has met the lesson objective or not.
Here is an example of a hinge question for a primary science lesson:
Which of the following is true about the moon?
- It reflects light
- It orbits the earth
- It can’t be seen during the day because there is too much light
- It has no gravity
This is an effective hinge question because:
- The question allows the teacher to ascertain a snapshot of all pupils’ levels of understanding
- It enables the teacher to be highly responsive to pupil needs and make a quick decision about next steps
- The question would also not take long for the pupils to responds to and would not impact the pace of a lesson
One useful feature of hinge questions, particularly those structured as a multiple-choice question, is that they can be designed to anticipate and monitor potential misconceptions in pupil understanding.
Let’s look back at the example of the hinge-question above. If you look carefully at the potential answers, the teacher has designed them to include distracting options that, if selected by pupils, might highlight some of the common misconceptions in pupil thinking around this topic.
- It reflects light (the common misconception being that moon is a source of light)
- It orbits the earth (the common misconception being that the earth orbits the moon)
- It can’t be seen during the day because there is too much light (the common misconception being that moon only comes out at night)
- It has no gravity (this itself being the common misconception)
Through carefully planning the questions, and aligning the possible answers to a common misconception, the teacher has been able to capture a large amount of useful assessment information from every pupil in the class. This information will enable them to make an informed decision about what steps to take next in teaching and learning.
A hinge point question is designed to be a quick and accurate snapshot of understanding from all pupils. However, you should encourage pupils to share their emerging understanding and points of confusion, so that misconceptions can be addressed. Your follow up questions should be open, such as ‘why did you answer D?’ or ‘Can you explain your thinking further?’
In the clip below, you will see a primary teacher ask a hinge question around money. From the way he has designed the task and asked the question, it is evident that he has anticipated the class may have a misconception around coin size. In asking this question, and through the subsequent class discussion, he is attempting to address this misconception before independent practice begins.
Encouraging deeper thinking
A concern sometimes voiced over multiple choice questions is that they are highly effective at assessing some knowledge, but less effective at assessing higher order thinking skills.
An example to counteract this argument can be seen in the following question:
Which of these is the most immediate cause of Hitler becoming chancellor?
- Nazi violence intimidated many voters and opponents
- Schleicher’s authority collapsed
- Hindenburg and Von Papen believed they could control Hitler as chancellor
(example question taken from ‘Responsive Teaching’, page 83)
With each answer being a correct cause of Hitler becoming chancellor, the question encourages deeper thinking, taking away a pupil’s immediate desire to identify the correct answer and move on, and instead prompting them to examine their knowledge and identify which answer was the most immediate cause.
Pedagogical subject knowledge
Structuring your questions to anticipate and identify misconceptions will not only give you useful assessment information on your pupils’ knowledge and understanding, but it can be a useful barometer as to your own level of understanding of a concept.
The ease with which you can anticipate a misconception is directly related to how familiar you are with the subject matter. Being aware of common misconceptions and discussing with experienced colleagues how to help pupils master important concepts should be an ongoing exercise for you in your early teaching career.
Structuring questions to enable to enable the identification of knowledge
To consolidate your learning from this session, complete the two short activities below to support your recall of key concepts.
Consider the following hinge-question.
Identify the verb in this sentence:
Claire walked her dog quickly past the spooky house.
In your notepad, outline whether you think this is an effective hinge-question and why.
It is an effective hinge question because:
- It can be answered quickly
- It will allow the teacher to gather assessment information from the whole class at once
- The other question options are plausible
- It would highlight misconceptions in pupil thinking
Select an upcoming lesson and identify a hinge-point within the lesson.
Design an effective hinge question that you could ask at this point in the lesson that will help you identify the next steps in teaching and learning.
- pupils should be able to give an answer to the question quickly (two minutes or less)
- you have included common misconceptions
You may wish to discuss the construction of this question at your next mentor interaction.
The focus of your next observation and mentor interaction will be around how you structure your tasks and questions to enable the identification of knowledge gaps and misconceptions.
Related ECF strands
How pupils learn
2g. Encouraging pupils to share emerging understanding and points of confusion so that misconceptions can be addressed.
Subject and curriculum
3e. Being aware of common misconceptions and discussing with experienced colleagues how to help pupils master important concepts.
4.4 Guides, scaffolds and worked examples can help pupils apply new ideas, but should be gradually removed as pupil expertise increases.
6.2 Good assessment helps teachers avoid being over-influenced by potentially misleading factors, such as how busy pupils appear.
6.3 Before using any assessment, teachers should be clear about the decision it will be used to support and be able to justify its use.
6a. Planning formative assessment tasks linked to lesson objectives and thinking ahead about what would indicate understanding (e.g. by using hinge questions to pinpoint knowledge gaps).
6d. Using assessments to check for prior knowledge and pre-existing misconceptions.
6e. Structuring tasks and questions to enable the identification of knowledge gaps and misconceptions (e.g. by using common misconceptions within multiple-choice questions).
6f. Prompting pupils to elaborate when responding to questioning to check that a correct answer stems from secure understanding. 6g. Monitoring pupil work during lessons, including checking for misconceptions.